Virtual Conference
Alwaleed A. Alshahir

Alwaleed A. Alshahir

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health sciences , KSA

Title: Etiology of Trauma-Related Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Forearm: A Systematic Review


Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as pressure elevation within a fibro-osseous space that disrupts the local circulation leading to muscle and nerve ischemia. ACS of the forearm is more specifically defined as increased pressure in the closed osteo-fascial compartment of the forearm with compromised microcirculation leading to ischemia and tissue damage. The most common types of injury contributing to the development of ACS are trauma-related tibial shaft fractures (36%), followed by soft-tissue injuries (23%) and forearm fractures (> 9%). The etiopathogenesis of the ACS is commonly divided into traumatic and non-traumatic causes. Injuries of the bone (fractures), soft tissues and vessels are the leading causes of ACS. Understanding the causes of this devastating condition allows to categorize the risk by identifying the group of high-risk patients, and the most common traumatic injuries associated with them.
Our goal is to present the etiology of ACS in the forearm caused by trauma.
Study done based on pre-specified protocol following preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). (Figure.1) A systematic review was performed on four different databases Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of systematic review register databases via Ovid, with no restriction on the date. It included all studies containing data about the etiology of trauma-related forearm ACS. Inclusion criteria: studies containing data about the ethology of trauma-related forearm ACS, with available full text. Exclusion criteria: animal studies and non-English studies.
A total of 83 articles and 684 patients constituted the basis of this review. We classified the etiology of ACS into three groups: Fracture related (65.4% of all patients), common cause Supracondylar humerus fracture. (Figure-2) Soft tissue injury related (30.7% of all patients), common cause Blunt trauma. (Figure-3) Vascular injury-related (3.9% of all patients), common cause brachial artery injury. (Figure-4)
Fractures are the most prevalent cause of forearm ACS, followed by soft tissue and finally vascular injuries. According to our findings: Supracondylar fractures were the most prevalent form of fractures that resulted in forearm ACS. The most prevalent soft tissue and vascular injuries-related forearm ACS were forearm blunt traumas and brachial artery damage, respectively.


Alwaleed Alshahir is currently a medical student at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health sciences. He also aspires to be an orthopaedic surgeon and researcher.