Arthroplasty is a surgical approach to restore normal motion and to relieve pain in a malformed or diseased joint, such as the hip, knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle. It may also be required due to cartilage that wears out, limb/joint misalignments, joint space narrowing, a stiff joint, disease, or other degenerative or traumatic conditions. Arthroplasty has become the choice of operation for most chronic knee and hip problems because of advances in the type and quality of prostheses (artificial joints).  And most arthroplasty procedures are minimally invasive, meaning that only a few small incisions are needed to remove and replace damaged joint materials. The advantages of modern arthroplasty are less tissue damage from surgery and faster recovery times.
Total Hip Arthroplasty is a surgical operation in which both diseased and damaged surfaces of the hip joint are replaced with prosthetic replacements. Hip Arthroplasty provides reliable outcomes for patients’ suffering from end-stage degenerative hip osteoarthritis (OA), specifically pain relief, functional restoration, and overall improved quality of life. A lot of advancements occurred in hip research over the last decade, but patient age, medical problems, hip disease, activity status, and possible fracture characteristics should all be taken into account while considering hip replacement surgery. It is one of the cost effective successful surgeries performed in orthopaedics. THA provide consistent short term and long term pain relief and positive patient reported clinical and functional outcome.
Total knee replacement is a surgical operation whereby the diseased/damaged knee joint is replaced with artificial substitutes. Total knee replacement surgery (TKA) is considered for patients whose knee joints have been injured either progressive arthritis, trauma, or other rare destructive diseases of the joint. Before the surgery a full medical evaluation is performed to determine risks and suitability. And there are certain factors included while performing TKA are materials used in knee replacement prostheses, surgical techniques, age factor, weight, activity level, knee size and shape, and overall health.
Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), is a surgical operation which used to substitute the diseased or damaged ball and socket joint of the shoulder with a prosthesis. Indications for TSA includes: osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, osteonecrosis and posttraumatic degenerative joint disease. Shoulder Arthroplasty provides predictable pain relief to restore functional capacity, comfort and to add significant improvements in motion. Comparing to other techniques total shoulder arthroplasty provides complete improvement of the function of shoulder with arthritis.
Ankle arthroplasty is a surgical technique where the damaged part of the ankle is replaced with the combination of metal and medical grade plastics, polyethylene which are similar process to the hip and knee replacement. The foot and ankle replacement surgery methods tends to regain the motion activities, allow the patients to relieve pain in short term period and return to their normal activities.
Spine Surgery is a procedure to treat possible structural abnormalities and to provide treatment for serious musculoskeletal injuries or nerve compression. Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery is to stabilize the vertebral bones and spinal joints or to relieve pressure which is being applied to the spinal nerves often a result of conditions such as spinal instability, bone spurs, herniated discs, and scoliosis or spinal tumors. Spinal surgeries are performed to correct spinal pathologies which cause pain. And this surgical approach is used to relieve the pain or numbness which associated with the pain, it may often radiates to other areas of the back, arms and legs.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint. It is an operating procedure in which a tube-like instrument called arthroscope, a type of endoscope is inserted into a joint to view, diagnose, and to repair the damaged tissues. Due to the technological developments the components of arthroscopes have steadily improved and now provide very high definition digital images. This enables them to provide for accurate diagnosis and surgical treatment of knee and joint problems. Mostly arthroscopy surgeries are performed to examine and to treat orthopaedic injuries including torn cartilage, ACL reconstruction, to trim the damaged cartilage and to correct of deformities. This surgery provide less tissue trauma, may result in less pain, and may promote a quicker recovery.
Hip arthroscopy is a surgical technique in which an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope to examine the inside of the hip joint. Hip Arthroscopy are intended to fix underlying structural issues and restore optimal joint health and function. The most known form of hip problem know as femoral acetabular impingement. Hip Arthroscopy realign abnormal bony structure in the hip joint to regain a proper fit between the ball and socket. It also reforms the structural damage in the hip. This surgical approach increases surgical precision and minimizes the number and size of surgical incisions.
Knee arthroscopic surgery is a procedure performed through small incisions to treat the injuries to tissues such as cartilage, ligaments within the knee joint area. The Knee Arthroscopy has gained its popularity because it usually requires minimal recovery times. The people who are suffering from osteoarthritis and degenerative diseases can benefited from the knee arthroscopy surgery. The range of knee surgeries techniques represents very different procedures, risks, and aftercare requirements. There are certain risks that patients should be aware depending on the patient and joint disease conditions, these risks may include swelling, stiffness of the joint, bleeding, blood clots, infection. 
Shoulder arthroscopy is a surgery which used to examine or treat the damaged tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. There are many surgical procedures can now be achieved arthroscopically, including rotator cuff repair, decompression and shoulder stabilisation. The shoulder arthroscopy is usually suggested when shoulder ailments causes’ pain and do not improve with the conservative treatment. These conditions are mainly caused by injury, overstrain and age-related degeneration of the shoulder. This approach assists a lot in the resolution of such disease with the restoration of normal function and range of motion of the shoulder.
Foot and ankle keyhole surgery or arthroscopy is the process of inserting a small telescope and instruments through miniscule incisions in the foot and ankle joint, to examine and to treat the damaged tissues. There are several complications which can occur in foot and ankle, such as neurologic, tendon, and ligament injuries, wound complications, infections, and instrument breakage. The most common complication is neurologic injury. In recent studies and clinical findings results are have shown that these types of ankle and foot infections may be diagnosed and, in many cases, it has been effectively treated arthroscopically.
Orthopedic trauma focused on problems related to the soft tissues, bone and joints of the whole-body following trauma. Orthopedics surgery tends to heal the fractured bones, as well as restoring the anatomic alignment of the joint surfaces for recovery and return to extreme function of the injured body portion. Orthopedic Surgeons utilize various leading-edge techniques including keyhole or minimally invasive surgery and advanced external fixation. Due to modern technologies bone graft substitutes and bone-forming proteins are certainly used to assist in the reconstruction of bones that need not healed.
Exercise is physical activity that is structured, planned and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any parts of the body. Sports Medicine forms the gap between science and practice in the promoting of exercise, health and the quality of wellbeing, and in the scientific evaluation for the better understanding and studying of sports performance. Exercise significantly improves physical activity for health, provides musculoskeletal expertise, support for team sports. By increasing muscle mass, strength and fostering cardiovascular endurance, exercise improves functional activity status for of daily living and protects against injury. There are preoperative exercise procedures which are prescribed before many selective surgical procedures to increase postoperative recovery.
Fractures is a medical condition where there is damage in the continuity of the bone. The causes of bone fracture are high force impact or stress on bones. In some cases, the fractures are caused due to some medical conditions and diseases which weakens the bones which are known as pathological fractures. The fractures are occurred due to many conditions where the bones may completely fracture or partially fractured or broken into pieces or it may broke are crosswise, lengthwise or in multiple pieces. Based on causes and symptoms of the bone fractures divided into groups with their respective medical care and treatments. The risk factors which are caused during the primary level of orthopedic trauma and neurovascular and soft tissue damages are considered acute. In different circumstances factors caused at initial treatment or post-operative treatments are the delayed complications.
Bone Infections is the process of invasion by causative agents which produce toxins, resulting in the illness of the biological system. Bone infections are categorized by either time duration (acute vs chronic) and infectious mechanism (hematogenous, contiguous, inoculation); or by location, immunocompetence of the host, and the nature of the infection’s environment -well-vascularized vs devascularized, -immunocompetent vs immunosuppressed, etc. Generally bones and joints are infected by the bacterial, fungal and viral organisms which gets invaded through our skin, eyes, ears, mouth, nose and mucous membranes, which is called as septic arthritis. The infections which are caused by bacteria in bones are called as the Osteomyelitis. The treatment methods and diagnosis varies from laboratory test to various internal view scans. The Intravenous antibiotics, vasopressor medications, insulin and corticosteroids are certain therapies involved in the treatment against infections.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation also known as physiatry or rehabilitation medicine which aims to enhance and restore functional ability, quality of life for those with physical impairments disabilities, diseases which are affecting the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments and Tendons. Physical activity weaken the likelihood of medical illness, improves the overall health and quality of life for patients with common medical diseases or conditions, lower the incidence of the major causes of death. There are certain exercise which are also mostly prescribed to rehabilitate patients after certain musculoskeletal injury. Physical activity after surgery is a major part in rehabilitation. It makes postoperative pain relief particularly so the patients can be active and participate effectively in physical therapy.
Prosthetics involves the use of artificial limbs called prostheses to enhance the function of persons with limb loss. The prosthesis are unique combination of suitable materials, alignments, design, and construction of material to meet the functional needs of an individual. Orthotics involves attention and creativity in the design and fabrication of external braces called orthoses as part of a patient’s treatment. The orthosis performs to control weakened parts or deformed regions of the body of a physically challenged person.